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Ankit Bansal Says:
Sep 26th, 2011 at 3:21 pm

 

Rice:-
Rice is grown in States like Punjab, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal. It is the staple foods of the States in southern and eastern India.Soils suitable for rice production are those with a pH of around 6.0. This includes a wide variety of soils ranging from sandy loam to silty clay loam. The land should be ploughed at least four times to get a field with good tilth. Every third year, the farmer should apply lime @ 2t/ha around one to two weeks before the seeds are sown. While transplanting, pudding should be done around three to four times to rid the land of weeds and help the soil retain water.
The type of rice that should be planted in your region depends on the altitude of your region and whether you are living in an upland or lowland area. Upland areas are dry or semi-dry and don't have supplementary irrigation facilities. Here farmers depend on rain to irrigate their fields. After ploughing, farmland manure is distributed uniformly around 2 to 3 weeks before sowing. The seed is sown immediately after the onset of the monsoon showers by broadcasting the seed, sowing the seed behind the plough or drilling. Seeds should be sown 20 cm row to row (5gm seed / 3 meter row). The best form of cultivation is line sowing as it leads to easy weeding, intercultural and requires a reduced seed-rate. In States like Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, the system of 'Beushening' is common. This involves cross ploughing the dry seeded standing crop after the fields get filled with around 15 to 20 centimeters of rain water. This helps in controlling weeds and adjusting population.
Wet or Lowland Cultivation is practiced in areas which have an assured and adequate supply of water, either through rainfall or irrigation. The main difference between upland cultivation is the fact that seeds are not directly sown but transplanted from nurseries as small plants or sprouted seeds into puddled fields. The land is ploughed thoroughly and puddled with around 3 to 5 cm of standing water to obtain a soft seedbed for the seedlings to grow quickly and reduce leaching of nutrients and weeds.
After puddling the land is leveled to facilitate uniform distribution of water and fertilizers. In Kerala, rice is cultivated in fields along the coastal canals and lagoons. This is done through the construction of dikes that drain marshes. Southern States like Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh depend on the monsoons to irrigate their fields. In Punjab and Haryana, rice fields are irrigated through modern systems like canals. Here rice is grown as a commercial crop on relatively light textured soils unlike the heavy textured soils prevalent in areas of traditional rice cultivation.
Before planting the seeds they should be soaked in Bavistin50 WP @ 0.1 percent (1g/litre) solution for 24 hours. There are two seasons for sowing and transplanting. These are the Rabi and Kharif season. The Kharif crop is planted in early summer and depends on the summer monsoons for irrigation. Ploughing is done between the months of March and May depending on the altitude of the area and date of onset of monsoons. Nurseries are prepared between April and June and plants are transplanted to the fields a month later. Rice is harvested in October - November. The Rabi crop is sown or transplanted to the fields in the winter months of November - December in the southern States of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is harvested in May -June. Some States plant around two crops a year.
A good way to increase your profitability is to intercrop upland rice with soybean or groundnut in the ratio of 3:1 or 2:1. Farmyard manure ( 10 -20 t/ha )and 60 : 60 : 40 kg Nitrogen (N) in the form of urea or ammonium sulphate, Phosphorus (P) in the form of single super phosphate and Potash (K) as Muriatic of potash should be applied as fertilizer. A full dose of P and K and half dose of N should be added during the stage of sowing or transplanting. The remaining nitrogen should be top dressed in two equal splits at maximum tillering and panicle initiation stage of the crop growth.
Weeds can be controlled through the application of Butachlor or Pendimethilin@ 1.5 kg active ingredient t/ha around 1-2 days after sowing or 1-2 days after transplanting. Herbicide should be applied after mixing the contents with 500 litres of water/ha. The rice crop is susceptible to plant diseases such as blast, brown spot and leaf scald. These problems can be prevented through the use of chemicals such as Carbendazim or Bavistin and proper nutrition of the plant. Rice plants may also be attacked by pests such as flea beetles, rice root aphids, Gundhi bugs, case worms, whorl maggots, leaf rollers and the army worm. These pests can be controlled through the use of pesticides like Monocrotophosand Carbofuran.
There are around 2,00,000 varieties of rice in India of which around 4,000 are cultivated. The type of rice grown in different parts of India depends on the weather, soil, structure, characteristics and purposes. India has the world's largest harvesting area for rice. Rice cultivation is found all over India with West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Orissa and Bihar being the chief rice producing States. Since 1965, around 600 improved varieties of Indica rice have been released for cultivation. The period of maturity for rice varies between 130 to 160 days depending on the kind of rice and the area in which it is grown. RCPL1-28 and RCPL1-29 are two varieties of rice that are grown in altitudes of 800 to 1,300 meters above sea level and are resistant to blast. RCPL1-87-8 is a variety of rice grown at medium altitudes which is tolerant to iron toxicity. Certain types of rice are grown in specific regions. For example, Basmati Rice is grown in the foothills of the Himalayas, Sona Masuri in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, Molakolukulu in Andhra Pradesh, Patna Rice in Bihar and Ambe Mohor in Maharashtra. Other popular varieties of rice are Emergency, Champa rice, 1034, IR64, Ponni Rice, Sujatha and Raja Hansa.
The use of hybrid rice is a new development in India. Hybrid rice is thecommercial rice crop from F1 seeds of cross between two genetically dissimilar parents. Good rice hybrids may yield up to 15-20 per cent more than the best inbred variety grown under similar conditions. Hybrid rice is not used much in India because farmers need to buy fresh seeds every cropping season and the rice cooks slowly. Some varieties of hybrid rice available in India are CR 314-10,IET 15848, Sahyadri-4 and VL Dhan86. With hybrid rice, ploughing needs to bedone earlier and transplantation needs less pudding of water.
Selecting good quality seeds, transplanting them to a depth of around 2-3 centimeters, using a drum seeder, proper fertilizers, nutrients and Integrated Pest Management pesticides can increase the productivity of rice. Farmers’ may also try out new technologies such as rice intensification, hybrid rice cultivation and efficient water management and harvesting the crop at the right stage of maturity for increased productivity. More information on increased productivi

 

Production of rice by country:-

Production of rice by country — 2007
(million metric ton)

 People's Republic of China

197

 India

131

 Indonesia

64

 Bangladesh

45

 Vietnam

39

 Thailand

31

 Myanmar

31

 Philippines

16

 Brazil

13

 Japan

11

 Pakistan

10

 United States

10

 

Consumption of rice by country—2003/2004
(million metric ton)

 China

135

 India

85.25

 Indonesia

36.95

 Bangladesh

26.4

 Vietnam

17.7

 Thailand

10.2

 Myanmar

10.2

 Philippines

9.7

 Japan

8.7

 Brazil

8.1

 South Korea

5.0

 United States

3.9

 Egypt

3.3

 Iran

3.1

 North Korea

1.6

 Taiwan

1.2

 South Africa

0.7

Source:
United States Department of Agriculture

 

Rice production in India is an important part of the national economy
India is the world's second largest producer of white rice, accounting for 20% of all world rice production. Rice is India's preeminent crop, and is the staple food of the people of the eastern and southern parts of the country. Production increased from 53.6 million tons in FY 1980 to 74.6 million tons in FY 1990, a 39 percent increase over the decade. By FY 1992, rice production had reached 111 million tons, second in the world only to China with its 182 million tons. Since 1950 the increase has been more than 350 percent. Most of this increase was the result of an increase in yields; the number of hectares increased only 40 Percent during this period. Yields increased from 1,336 kilograms per hectare in FY 1980 to 1,751 kilograms per hectare in FY 1990. The per-hectare yield increased more than 262 percent between 1950 and 1992.
The country's rice production declined to 89.13 million tones in 2009-10 crop year (July-June) from record 99.18 mille on tones in the previous year due to severe drought that affected almost half of the country. India could achieve a record rice production of 100 million tones in 2010-11 crop year on the back of better monsoon this year. Andhra Pradesh is the top most rice-producing state in the country

 

 

 

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